understanding the Bible

TruthTalks: Unpacking a Package

How do YOU read and understand the Bible?

In this TruthTalks podcast, Dr Christopher Peppler, based on THIS post, “unpacks” Luke 4:14-30 for us. He goes through the full meaning of these verses and then most importantly, he explains how WE can also read the Bible and understand passages the correct way.

I know I tend to either:
  • Skim through, or,
  • Get bogged down in the detail, wandering off into paths that lead me away from the passage I’m studying and create more confusion.

So for me it’s great to hear this and also how to apply a passage of the bible’s practical application in my life. Listen below and please like us, write a review on iTunes, subscribe… just get the word out, because of course… Truth is The Word.

Until next time, Admin

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Things we Don’t Know we Don’t Know

Top ImageThe statement that “There are things we don’t know we don’t know” is attributed to Donald Rumsfeld, the Secretary of Defence in the George W Bush administration. It has become so well known that it now has an entry in the Urban Dictionary, but folk have attributed several different meanings to it. The honourable Rumsfeld used it when trying to describe the complexity of state intelligence, but I have something else entirely in mind.

What People Knew… then

The Lord Jesus walked on Earth two thousand years ago and interacted with people mostly from Jewish religious and cultural backgrounds. Many of the things He said and did must have been easily understandable to them, but to us, they are often ambiguous and mysterious. We just do not know the cultural and religious contexts of some of the things He said or the acts He performed: we don’t know what we don’t know. This is why we need to research and inform ourselves so that we can discern the first intended meaning. We need to ask and answer the question, ‘what did the people of that day understand by this?’

A Jesus-centred Example

The best way for me to explain what I mean is to give a concrete example. A few days ago, I was reading the account in John Chapter Six of how Jesus fed 5,000 men, and who knows how many women and children, with just five small barley loaves and two tiny fish. They all ate their fill and the disciples gathered up 12 baskets full of bread left-overs. Then verses 14 and 15 record that, ‘After the people saw the miraculous sign that Jesus did, they began to say, “Surely this is the Prophet who is to come into the world.” Jesus, knowing that they intended to come and make him king by force, withdrew again to a mountain by himself’.

Who was The Prophet?

Now why, I asked myself, would they think that Jesus was ‘the Prophet who is to come into the world’? Most commentaries skip over this, but some tell us that the Rabbis pointed out that Moses had promised that a great saviour would arise in Israel. His exact words were: “The Lord your God will raise up for you a prophet like me from among your own brothers. You must listen to him” (Deuteronomy 18:15). Well, OK, but why would the people associate the miracle of multiplied bread with Moses’s statement?

Bread from Heaven

When Moses was leading the people through the wilderness, God had said to him that He Himself would feed the people and the very next morning the Manna appeared on the ground (Exodus 16:11-16). In the same chapter of John’s Gospel that I was reading, Jesus referred to this miraculous provision and told His audience that, “it is not Moses who has given you the bread from heaven, but it is my Father who gives you the true bread from heaven. For the bread of God is he who comes down from heaven and gives life to the world… I am the bread of life” (John 6:32-35).

Something Still Missing

So far so good, but something was missing for me and I had the nagging feeling that I still didn’t know what I didn’t know. Probably the best-known prophet in Israel was Elijah, but there was one other who trumped his great ministry, Elisha the great man’s assistant and successor and the man who did twice as many miracles as Elijah (Double Anointing). So, I scanned through the biblical account of his life and works until I came to 2 Kings 4:42-44, which reads:

‘A man came from Baal Shalishah, bringing the man of God twenty loaves of barley bread baked from the first ripe grain, along with some heads of new grain. “Give it to the people to eat,” Elisha said.  “How can I set this before a hundred men?” his servant asked. But Elisha answered, “Give it to the people to eat. For this is what the Lord says: ‘They will eat and have some left over.'” Then he set it before them, and they ate and had some left over, according to the word of the Lord’.

A Light-bulb Moment

Ah-ha! A light-bulb moment! So, the people of Jesus’ day would have seen Him performing a miraculous sign similar to but greater than Elisha’s. The ancient prophet fed 100 people with 20 small loaves of barley bread – Jesus fed 5,000 plus with just five! Elisha performed the miracle through the hands of his disciples and so did Jesus. Elisha predicted that there would be left-overs and Jesus instructed His disciples to gather up the left-overs, all twelve baskets full (representing all 12 tribes of Israel). However, Elisha multiplied the bread five times and Jesus multiplied it one thousand times. Wow! No wonder, the people whom Jesus fed thought that He was The Prophet whom Moses had predicted would come into the world and whom the great prophet Elisha had foreshadowed.

The Fuller Answer

Now I had my answer to the question of what the people of Jesus’ day would have understood by what Jesus said and did. But I had more than this; I had a deep and awe-inspiring knowledge of just how comprehensively the Lord Jesus had fulfilled the Old Testament scriptures. He had said, “Do not think that I have come to abolish the Law or the Prophets; I have not come to abolish them but to fulfil them. I tell you the truth, until heaven and earth disappear, not the smallest letter, not the least stroke of a pen, will by any means disappear from the Law until everything is accomplished” (Matt 5:17-18). He meant what He said, for He really did ‘know what He did know’.

What we Need to Know

To more fully appreciate the glorious supremacy of the Lord Jesus and the wonderfully detailed testimony of the bible, we need to know two things. We need to know that there are things we don’t yet know, and we need to know that the Holy Spirit will reveal what we do not know if we diligently search the scriptures.



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Understanding the Bible

Three steps to understanding the Bible

It is one thing for us to claim that the Bible is the inspired Word of God, and quite another to assert that we are interpreting it correctly.

‘Be diligent to present yourself approved to God, a worker who doesn’t need to be ashamed, correctly teaching the word of truth’. 2 Timothy 2:15-16 (HCSB)

I have written on this subject before but it is so important that it warrants repeating.

I am currently helping a colleague develop a two-day workshop on Bible interpretation for church leaders who have English as a second or third language. Most of them have a low level of formal education, and a further challenge is that many of them have only been exposed to topical or allegorical preaching.

Those who do not interpret the Bible allegorically, have been taught to take everything at face value and very literally.
Interpreting the biblePerhaps I should give an example of these two types of ‘interpretation’: The story that Jesus told of the good Samaritan has often been interpreted allegorically. Some  teachers have claimed that the two coins given to the innkeeper to provide for the injured man’s board and lodging stand for baptism and holy communion. The idea being that these are the two ordained church provisions for the ‘sinner’. But there is no end to what the two coins could be taken to represent; Old and New Testaments, Apostles and Prophets, and so on. The problem is, of course, that the original context of the passage plays little role in this form of interpretation, and nor does the first intended meaning.

A couple of years ago I came across a rather extreme yet nevertheless real-life example of literalistic interpretation. One of our preaching team members was ministering at a church in a nearby informal settlement. During the service, a young woman started to manifest signs of demonic interference, so… the church leaders immediately tied her up with ropes! The visiting preacher demanded that they release her and asked why they had tied her up. They answered that the Bible said they should because “Jesus said in Matthew 12:29 that they should ‘bind the strongman’.” Once again, the context and first intended meaning of the scripture in question had been ignored.

So, what are the most fundamental processes for interpreting the Bible? For me, there are just three – Context, Christocentricity, and Exhaustive Reference.

Understanding the bible imageIn the majority of cases, the context of a text yields its fundamental meaning, in other words;

  • Look at the verse’s position within the larger portion of scripture in which the text is set.
  • Observe the literary type or style of the passage. Is it poetic, or prophetic, a parable, or a historical account? For instance, we get into all sorts of trouble when we read the book of Revelation as a chronological history.
  • Finally, note the cultural, geographic, and historic setting.

Determining the context of a passage helps us answer the key question, ‘what is the first intended meaning of this portion of scripture?’ A helpful way of getting to an answer to this question is to consider what the first listeners or readers would have understood as the meaning.

Where the meaning of a passage is still not clear, even when considered within its various contexts, then we need to ask a further question; ‘what light does the life and teaching of the Lord Jesus shed on my understanding of this passage?’ Did Jesus teach this? Did Jesus do what the text appears to teach? Is what Jesus presented as the nature, character, and values of the Triune God consistent with what this text appears to be saying? Jesus Christ is the full manifestation of the Godhead (Colossians 2:9) and we can be sure that His life and teachings constitute the primary key to understanding the Bible. One of the most dramatic examples of the need for this Christocentric principle is the sad story of Ananias and Sapphira who appear to have been struck down by God for not fully disclosing their donation to the church (Acts 5:1-11). The question that must be asked of this difficult passage is, ‘would Jesus have killed two of His disciples for this or any reason?’ The answer is a resounding “No!” There must be another way of understanding this historical account, and if we cannot settle on it then we should simply say “I don’t know what happened here, but I am not convinced that God killed them”.

The first procedure in interpreting a biblical text is to determine its context, the second is to apply the Christocentric Principle, and the third is to see if other parts of the Bible have a bearing on the text in question; I call this Exhaustive Reference.
We are so blessed in our day to have access to fine commentaries, comprehensive concordances, Topical Bibles, Study Bibles, and so on. Many of these resources are available for free on the internet and can be accessed even through a small smartphone.

My recommendation is to stay away from allegorical interpretations… but if you do venture into this tricky area, please always ensure that what you arrive at is consistent with the text’s first intended meaning. In other words, ensure that what you claim the text teaches lines up with what the first readers would have understood the meaning to be.

There are parts of the Bible which are hard to understand, and that is why God has given the church it’s teachers. However, if you follow the three simple processes which I have briefly outlined, then most of the scriptures will be open to you. At very least, you will be able to identify the real problems texts and know to call on an experienced and trained teacher who can help you.





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About Me

My name is Christopher Peppler and I was born in Cape Town, South Africa in 1947. While working in the financial sector I achieved a number of business qualifications from the Institute of Bankers, Damelin Management School, and The University of the Witwatersrand Business School. After over 20 years as a banker, I followed God’s calling and joined the ministry full time. After becoming a pastor of what is now a quite considerable church, I  earned an undergraduate theological qualification from the Baptist Theological College of Southern Africa and post-graduate degrees from two United States institutions. I was also awarded the Doctor of Theology in Systematic Theology from the University of Zululand in 2000.

Four years before that I established the South African Theological Seminary (SATS), which today is represented in over 70 countries and has more than 2 500 active students enrolled with it. I presently play an role supervising Masters and Doctoral students.

I am a passionate champion of the Christocentric or Christ-centred Principle, an approach to biblical interpretation and theological construction that emphasises the centrality of Jesus

I have been happily married to Patricia since the age of 20, have two children, Lance and Karen, a daughter-in-law Tracey, and granddaughters Jessica and Kirsten. I have now retired from both church and seminary leadership and devote my time to writing, discipling, and the classical guitar.

If you would like to read my testimony to Jesus then click HERE.